POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID – RUSSIA: (AMUR)

Monday, 01 January 2024 19:49:00

Grahame Jackson posted a new submission ‘POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID – RUSSIA: (AMUR)’

Submission

POTATO SPINDLE TUBER VIROID – RUSSIA: (AMUR)

ProMed 
http://www.promedmail.org

ProMED-mail is a program of the
Source: Port Amur [in Russian, machine trans., summ. Mod.DHA, edited]
https://portamur.ru/news/detail/v-priamure-vyiyavili-novyiy-dlya-regiona-kartofelnyiy-patogen//

In the Amur region, potato spindle tuber viroid has been detected, as reported by Rosselkhoznadzor [Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance]. Samples of potato tubers were sent for laboratory analysis which revealed the viroid. This “quarantine object” was discovered in the Amur region for the 1st time.

A “quarantine phytosanitary regime” was introduced in the area of 1st detection (Belogorsky district) and a “quarantine phytosanitary zone” with a total area of 275 hectares [680 acres] was established. Also, certain measures are prescribed to individual farmers who own infected potato fields.

Communicated by:
ProMED

[_Potato spindle tuber viroid_ (PSTVd; type member of genus _Pospiviroid_) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops. Yield losses can be up to 65% in potato and up to 50% in tomato. Symptoms in potato may include spindly shoots; stunting of plants; severely distorted tubers (spindles); and delayed sprouting. In tomato, symptoms include leaf chlorosis and distortion; shortening of internodes; stunting of plants; and absence of flowers. Capsicum plants often display only mild symptoms. Solanaceous ornamentals and weeds are often symptomless and may serve as pathogen reservoirs for crop infections. All varieties of tomato and potato appear to be susceptible, but mild strains causing latent infections in some host cultivars exist.

PSTVd is transmitted by true seed in potato and tomato at a rate of up to 100%, depending on the host cultivar. Tomato seed is considered an international quarantine risk (ProMED post 20140122.2222560). Spread occurs also via infected plants or vegetative plant parts, pollen, mechanical means and plant-to-plant contact. PSTVd is exceptionally stable and can persist in dried sap or plant residue for considerable times. Due to the multiple potential transmission routes and the large number of host species, both epidemiology and control of PSTVd are complicated.

In Russia, PSTVd is widespread and poses problems for seed potato production (ProMED posts 20101020.3801, 20190606.6506616). A reduction in yield and quality of seed potatoes had been observed in the country since the 1980s. As PSTVd was identified to be the main cause, the pathogen has been made a national quarantine organism and is being monitored nationwide (see links below).

Pictures
PSTVd symptoms on potato:
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/sites/gateway/files/PSTVd%20on%20Atlantic.JPG and
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/image/0003/583842/above-ground-symptoms-of-infected-potato.jpg (compared to healthy)
PSTVd symptoms on tomato:
http://www.forestryimages.org/images/768×512/0162082.jpg and
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/sites/gateway/files/PSTVd%20on%20Rutgers.JPG (compared to healthy)
Photo galleries of PSTVd symptoms on potato and tomato:
http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/subimages.cfm?SUB=11936 and
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PSTVD0/photos
Symptoms of pospiviroids on different hosts:
https://www.ipmimages.org/search/action.cfm?q=pospiviroid

Links
Information on PSTVd:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PSTVD0,
https://doi.org/10.1079/cabicompendium.43659,
https://www.agric.wa.gov.au/potatoes/potato-spindle-tuber-viroid and via
http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/Viroids.aspx
Seed transmission of PSTVd (and some other viroids):
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-016-0868-z
Detection methods and quarantine risk analysis of pospiviroids:
https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2330 and
https://gd.eppo.int/download/standard/258/pm9-013-1-en.pdf
PSTVd in Russia:
https://gd.eppo.int/reporting/article-616 and
https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0752
PSTVd taxonomy via:
https://ictv.global/taxonomy
– Mod.DHA