USA: Tar spot was confirmed in central Missouri cornfields in 2023


USA: Tar spot was confirmed in central Missouri cornfields in 2023

Problems ahead for 2024? Tar spot was confirmed in central Missouri cornfields; universities look for answers through DNA.

Picture of Mindy Ward

Mindy Ward

January 17, 2024

2 Min Read

A close up of tar spot on a corn leaf

PINNING DOWN DISEASE: Tar spot, a disease that generally does not like heat, is finding a way to survive. It’s moved south, and researchers are looking into its DNA to see exactly what is at work in Missouri cornfields.KIERSTEN WISE, BUGWOOD.ORG

Mandy Bish spent the early days of fall 2023 stopping at random cornfields in central Missouri looking for tar spot, and she found it about 90% of the time.

“It might have taken me four or five plants,” the University of Missouri Extension state plant pathologist explained, “but I could confirm it pretty rapidly.”

By season’s end, tar spot spread to an additional 25 additional counties in the state, bringing the grand total to 49 counties dealing with this fungal pathogen.

In most regions of the state, tar spot appeared later in the season, and yield losses were not observed. However, there were instances in northwest and northeast Missouri where yield losses occurred.

It boils down to environmental conditions and perhaps disease design.

Weather prompted early arrival

Bish’s phone started ringing in June 2023 with reports of tar spot in Missouri.

“I said it wasn’t tar spot because it was too early,” she said, “but I was wrong.”

During the MU Crop Management Conference in December, she explained how the risk of tar spot increases when cooler temperatures (minimum air temperature is less than 59.7 degrees F) and cooler dew-point temperatures (less than 55.6 degrees) combine over a window of time. And that was the scenario in the state for June when air and dew-point temperatures were about 6 degrees below the three-year average.

However, July saw warmer temperatures, with some regions reaching triple digits. “This disease does not like heat, and it got hot,” Bish said. “The disease kind of stagnated.”

A map indicating movement of tar spot in Missouri

By mid- to late August, cooler temperatures returned with a little moisture from Mother Nature and irrigation pivots. Tar spot started spreading once again across Missouri cornfields.

“One thing we know is you have to have some moisture for disease progression,” Bish explained. “So just seeing it first, you don’t need moisture, but to have a progression of the disease, you need some moisture and that’s what happened.”

With environmental conditions out of many growers’ controls, university researchers are looking into others means to slow the spread of the tar spot, right down to its DNA.

Studying the genome of tar spot

The fungal pathogen Phyllachora maydis causes tar spot. However, with the rapid spread of the disease, Bish and university researchers are wondering if the pathogen is the same in all states. Are there types (or races) of the pathogen that are more adapted to thrive in Southern climates?

University researchers are working together to answer this question. Comparing DNA from different samples of the pathogen can help scientists understand and provide researchers with more information about tar spot across the Corn Belt.

Bish said the results may provide a launching pad for opportunities to improve management of this corn disease.

Read more about:Tar Spot

About the Author(s)

Mindy Ward

Mindy Ward

Editor, Missouri Ruralist

Mindy resides on a small farm just outside of Holstein, Mo, about 80 miles southwest of St. Louis.

After graduating from the University of Missouri-Columbia with a bachelor’s degree in agricultural journalism, she worked briefly at a public relations firm in Kansas City. Her husband’s career led the couple north to Minnesota.

There, she reported on large-scale production of corn, soybeans, sugar beets, and dairy, as well as, biofuels for The Land. After 10 years, the couple returned to Missouri and she began covering agriculture in the Show-Me State.

“In all my 15 years of writing about agriculture, I have found some of the most progressive thinkers are farmers,” she says. “They are constantly searching for ways to do more with less, improve their land and leave their legacy to the next generation.”

Mindy and her husband, Stacy, together with their daughters, Elisa and Cassidy, operate Showtime Farms in southern Warren County. The family spends a great deal of time caring for and showing Dorset, Oxford and crossbred sheep.


Digital Monitoring of Crop Pests Via Vibrational Signals


January 17, 2024 The Entomology Profession 0

The Insect Eavesdropper, a system that uses a contact microphone and minicomputer to analyze the vibrational signals of insects feeding on plants, took 1st Place in the 2023 ESA Antlion Pit, an innovation competition for entomology-related products and services. View the 2023 Antlion Pit presentation session here. (The video is cued to start with the Insect Eavesdropper presentation; skip back or ahead to see other segments.)

Last November at Entomology 2023 saw the return of the Antlion Pit, an innovation competition for entomology-related products and services. Six teams were selected to compete out of nine applications, with the “Insect Eavesdropper” team earning 1st Place and a $5,000 prize to invest in advancing their product, a system using a contact microphone and a minicomputer to detect and identify the vibrational signals of insects feeding on plants.

A system that uses a contact microphone and minicomputer to analyze the vibrational signals of insects feeding on plants took 1st Place in the 2023 ESA Antlion Pit, an innovation competition for entomology-related products and services. The creators of the Insect Eavesdropper are Emily Bick, Ph.D., BCE-Intern (left), assistant professor in the Department of Entomology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Dev Mehrotra (right), master’s student in computer science working in Bick’s lab at UW.

The creators of the Insect Eavesdropper are Emily Bick, Ph.D., BCE-Intern, assistant professor in the Department of Entomology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Dev Mehrotra, master’s student in computer science working in Bick’s lab at UW.

Entomology Today connected with Bick and Mehrotra for a Q&A to learn more about Insect Eavesdropper and its development.

Entomology Today: How did you both get started on developing the Insect Eavesdropper? What inspired this pursuit?

Bick and Mehrotra: When Emily visited a sugarcane farm in Indonesia, she was challenged to develop a sensor to directly measure insects boring within plants, rather than monitoring adult immigration and using degree days to predict when boring larvae were active. After looking into existing technologies such as laser vibrometers, electric stethoscopes, and other potential methods, Dev built the very first Insect Eavesdropper.

Can you summarize what the Insect Eavesdropper does and how it works?

The Insect Eavesdropper is a contact microphone strategically clipped to or stuck on a plant. A minicomputer starts, stops, and saves a recording of insects chomping on the leaves, sucking on the plant, boring through its tissue, or chewing on the roots. The recording is pre-processed and the feeding “event” is extracted and then run through a machine learning algorithm for species identification. Thus far, the Insect Eavesdropper can detect, identify to species, and count insects that are directly feeding on plants.

What are the likely potential applications for the Insect Eavesdropper? Who might be the primary customers for it as a commercial product?

The Insect Eavesdropper addresses the unmet need for cost-effective and accurate digital monitoring of insects as they directly feed on crops. The technology’s potential use cases are twofold:

  1. Subscription to data, analysis, and alerts from a network of Insect Eavesdroppers continuously monitoring sentinel crops. This method mimics trapping networks or predictions from degree days in an accurate, efficient, and cost-effective way.
  2. The mobile version of the Insect Eavesdropper, termed “Rambling Eavesdropper,” which crop consultants, growers, extension folk, and researchers can use to sample crops for pests via non-destructive, efficient methods.

We highlight the Eavesdropper ecosystem below, with each type of user on the left, the sensor flow within the gray boxes, and leaving the decision making up to the better-informed stakeholder, on the left.

Flowchart running left to right. At left are a tractor logo labeled Agtech, a sweepnet labeled Consultants, and a farmer icon labeled Growers. Agtech and Consultants have arrows labeled Subscribe pointing the top row of the flowchart, starting with Sensor Network followed by Continuous Monitoring, under a header of Insect Eavesdropper. Consultants and Growers have arrows labled Purchase sensor, Alert subscription, pointing to the bottom row of the flowchart, starting with Mobile Sensor followed by Pest snapshot, under a header of Rambling Eavesdropper. The rows then converge to Analytics and Alerts, followed by an icon at end of a person with a light bulb icon. Across the top, stages are labeled Sensor deployment, Data collection, Analysis, Insight, and Ag Decisions.
The Insect Eavesdropper, a system that uses a contact microphone and minicomputer to analyze the vibrational signals of insects feeding on plants, took 1st Place in the 2023 ESA Antlion Pit, an innovation competition for entomology-related products and services. The creators of the Insect Eavesdropper envision it being used as both a sensor network for continuous monitoring or a mobile, handheld sensor for spot-checking crops for pests. (Figure courtesy of Emily Bick, Ph.D., BCE-Intern, and Dev Mehrotra)

What stage are you in now in developing and testing the Insect Eavesdropper? What challenges do you currently face?

On the hardware, Dev has led the efforts in Emily’s lab to successfully develop two prototypes for the Insect Eavesdropper and Rambling Eavesdropper. The former is a stationary version, continuously monitoring insects similar to Malaise traps or sticky cards; the latter is version that can be carried around a field, mimicking a sampling tool like a sweep net.

We received an accelerator grant from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation to “unwire” the Insect Eavesdropper, using a module such as LoRa, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi for data transmission. On the software, we are building a toolkit to make the sensor more accessible to anyone, regardless of programing capability. This will allow a broad variety of potential users to independently work with the Insect Eavesdropper.

Functionally, we are formalizing the machine learning algorithms that identify species, adding to our species library, and working through density estimates based on feeding events. Additionally, we are handing the Insect Eavesdropper to researchers working across the world, trying to find the limits of the Insect Eavesdropper as well as externally validate the sensor.

How did competing in and taking 1st Place in ESA’s Antlion Pit competition advance your work on the Insect Eavesdropper?

The Antlion Pit competition helped spread the word about the Insect Eavesdropper and its potential. It was exciting to expose our idea to scrutiny across the entomology community. The Antlion Pit competition provided us with valuable feedback that will shape the Insect Eavesdropper for years to come.

For those interested in the Insect Eavesdropper, where can they learn more, and what should we be on the lookout for next from you?

To learn more, please visit If academics are interested in applying the Insect Eavesdropper to a difficult entomological problem, they should reach out to Emily at If industry folks are interested in potentially licensing the method, they should reach out to Emily Bauer at the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation at Everyone else should keep your eyes peeled for our upcoming publications.

The Insect Eavesdropper, a system that uses a contact microphone and minicomputer to analyze the vibrational signals of insects feeding on plants, took 1st Place in the 2023 ESA Antlion Pit, an innovation competition for entomology-related products and services. It also received an accelerator grant from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation to incorporate a module for wireless data transmission.

Learn More

Insect Eavesdropper

Antlion Pit Competition, Entomological Society of America


Fossils of first photosynthesising bacteria


Fossils of first photosynthesising bacteria

January 4, 2024 Matthew Ward Agius Matthew Agius is a science writer for Cosmos Magazine.

Photosynthesis first evolved in living organisms at least 1.75 billion years ago, according to a new study into ancient organisms by a team of Belgian biologists.

The updated timescale is the result of their study into fossilised cyanobacteria (sometimes referred to as ‘blue-green algae’) sourced from the McArthur Basin, which stretches from the northern fringe of Australia along the Arafura Sea and Gulf of Carpentaria.

The group from the University of Liège believe they’ve found in microfossils of Navifusa majensis the “oldest direct evidence” of specialised biological structures – thylakoid membranes – which are essential to oxygenic (oxygen-producing) photosynthesis.

A photomicrograph of a modern-day cyanobacterium. Credit: N Nehring via Getty Images

Photosynthesis is the chemical process by which plants and some single-celled organisms create energy. In the cells of most photosynthesising organisms, carbon dioxide and water are converted using light energy into sugar and oxygen.

Typically, this occurs at sites in plant cells called chloroplasts. Within these structures are thylakoids, which house the green pigment chlorophyll that absorbs sunlight for use in photosynthesis.

Unlike plants, cyanobacteria don’t possess chloroplasts.


They do have thylakoids, which is why evolutionary biologists think these single-celled organisms were incorporated into complex plant cells as chloroplasts.

But not all cyanobacteria produce their energy using thylakoids – the genus Gloeobacter instead photosynthesises via light-capturing protein structures in their plasma membrane.

Understanding cyanobacteria evolution could help scientists understand a major change in Earth’s history.

Oxygen-producing photosynthesis is the likely cause of a major historic spike of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere about 2.4 billion years ago – vital for the development of life on our planet. Scientists working across several disciplines have struggled to pinpoint the precise cause of this so-called Great Oxidation Event, however the Liège study published today in the journal Nature at least pushes the dial backwards.

Led by PhD student Catherine Demoulin and Dr Emmanuelle Javaux, the research team studied N. majensis microfossils obtained from rock formations in the Northwest Territories in Canada, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the McDermott Formation in the Northern Territory, Australia. Of these, the McDermott samples were the oldest – dating back 1.75 billion years – providing a new minimum timepoint for the emergence of thylakoid-containing cyanobacteria.

Aerial photo of stromatolites
Stromatolites formed by billion-year-old cyanobacteria at the Hamelin pools in Western Australia. Credit: Intst via istock/Getty Images Plus

In their study, they note the specimens were highly preserved, allowing the arrangement of thylakoid membranes to be microscopically observed.

“Thylakoids represent direct ultrastructural evidence for oxygenic [oxygen-producing] photosynthesis,” they write.

“The discovery of preserved thylakoids within N. majensis reported here provides direct evidence for a minimum age of about 1.75 Ga for the divergence between thylakoid-bearing and thylakoid-less cyanobacteria.

“By probing the older fossil record, it may also allow testing of the hypothesis that the emergence of thylakoid membranes may have contributed to the rise in oxygen around the GOE, and to the permanent oxygenation of the early Earth.”

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Originally published by Cosmos as Biologists pinpoint fossils of first photosynthesising bacteria


Kenya: Sustainable biopesticides for horticulture


Kenya: Sustainable biopesticides for horticulture

In recent years, there has been a growing complexity of phytosanitary challenges in the horticulture and floriculture sectors due to the increased global movement of agricultural produce. The overreliance on synthetic pesticides poses threats to quality and international competitiveness. The Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands held a workshop to promote biopesticides at the 2023 Naivasha Horticulture Fair as a sustainable solution to evolving sanitary and phytosanitary standards.

In recent years, phytosanitary-related challenges have become more complex, mainly due to the increased movement of agricultural produce and regulated materials from one country to another. Kenya is no exception. Some of these pests and diseases have the capacity to directly affect consumers, damage crops, and the natural environment. Their impact is widespread, given that most of these pests and diseases are transboundary. The burden to control them mainly falls on the producers. This directly affects the quality of produce and ultimately competitiveness of Kenyan produce on the international market. Overreliance on synthetic pesticides has made this worse due to heightened demands on the use of pesticides that are in alignment with the phytosanitary standards for the import and export markets. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) measures are now a strategic tool for developing and differentiating markets, increasing market access, coordinating the quality and safety of food systems, and defining market niches for export products.

For sustainability, the safe use of chemicals in production is key to meeting the SPS standards. It is towards this goal, that the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, together with partners, held a workshop during the 20th edition of the Naivasha Horticultural fair in Naivasha- Nakuru County, where stakeholders shared experiences on the use of bio solutions, regulation policies and the role that all play in enabling the transition to the use of biopesticides, as a solution to changing Sanitary and Phytosanitary requirements in the horticulture and Floriculture sectors.

Bart Pauwels, Agriculture Counsellor at the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, opened the workshop forum by highlighting the changing demands from government to government for stringent sanitary phytosanitary standards, that is informed by the changing environment for production and growing demands by consumers. “Pests are becoming more resistant to pesticides, and the effects of climate change are worsening the production environment in agriculture. It is therefore imperative for the sector to adapt to these changes and seek safer solutions to addressing the pest and disease menace in a bid to safeguard trade.”

Regulatory agencies in Kenya, such as Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS), Kenya Flower Council (KFC), Pest Control Products Board (PCPB), and IBMA (International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association), have been working with growers, researchers, and agro-chemicals suppliers to ensure that the pesticides used in production are in alignment with the phytosanitary standards for the import and export markets.

According to Sarah Wambugu, Senior Pesticide Registration Officer- Pest Control Products Board (PCPB), “With the changing SPS requirements, there has been increased interest in licensing biocontrol solutions that aim to reduce the overuse of synthetic chemicals.”

It was noted that production and commercialization of bio-pesticides is hampered by lengthy and costly registration processes and inadequate production, distribution and storage infrastructure. The situation is compounded by a lack of awareness to the public and the proliferation of adulterated products. This is a challenge in the Bio-control space since most products have a limited shelf life, hence making it very expensive for many manufacturers to introduce biopesticides.

To address this, there was a proposal to PCPB to consider providing temporary permits for products that have been approved in other key markets. This way, more producers in the Horticulture and Floriculture sectors will be able to access the biopesticides solutions. Sarah added that PCPB makes exemptions in special cases, such as emergencies from pest and disease outbreaks, and is in the process of exploring other opportunities to hasten the approval process.

Kenya’s floriculture sector is advanced with reference to regulatory systems. According to John Njenga, Scheme Manager- Kenya Flower Council, the council is working towards compliance by its members to global standards and has set 2025 as the year to attain full compliance. “By becoming members of Kenya Flower Council, we monitor our members’ usage of chemicals through data collection and audits undertaken to make sure that compliance is achieved. Through compliance and accreditation by the council, It becomes easier for them to access all markets. However, the cost of transition from synthetic to some of the biopesticides is very high. This poses a risk of adoption by the producers. There is a need to seek ways to make bio-control solutions affordable and accessible.”

Farmers who have started to use bio-protection solutions are already noting positive changes in the quality of their produce. Amala Munyendo – a farm manager, noted that by using biopesticides, their use of synthetic chemicals has remarkably reduced the prevalence of pests, too. On the other hand, Avinash Mokate highlighted that, at the onset of using bio solutions, the results are achieved at a much slower rate, but once the soil gains its health, the yields increase, and the maintenance cost also reduces. “However, it’s important to note that the efficacy of biopesticides can vary depending on factors like crop type, pest species, and local environmental conditions. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies that combine various pest control methods, including biopesticides, synthetic pesticides, and cultural practices, are often the most effective way to address pest challenges while meeting SPS standards.


Publication date: Wed 17 Jan 2024


Endophytic bacteria to improve tomato plants immune responses managing root-rot disease


Endophytic bacteria to improve tomato plants immune responses managing root-rot disease

Around the world, a variety of crops, including tomatoes, suffer serious economic losses due to the Rhizoctonia root-rot disease. Herein, Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus megaterium, and Herpaspirillum huttiense isolated from strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa) plants were pragmatic as plant growth promotors for battling the Rhizoctonia root rot disease and bringing about defense mechanisms as well as growth promotional strategies in tomato plants. These endophytic bacteria demonstrated potent antifungal activity against R. solani in vitro along in vivo.

Data explained that the isolated endophytic bacteria could produce Indole acetic acid, Gibberellic acid GA, and siderophore as well as solubilize phosphate in the soil. The consortium of (Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus megaterium, and Herpaspirillum huttiense) increased the protection % against Rhizoctonia infection by (79.4%), followed by B. velezensis by (73.52%), H. huttiense by (70.5%), and B. megaterium by (67.64%), respectively. There was an increase in soluble proteins and carbohydrates in infected plants treated with a consortium of endophytic bacteria by 30.7% and 100.2% over untreated infected plants, respectively.

Applying endophytic bacteria either alone or in combination lowered the level of malondialdehyde MDA and hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both infected and uninfected plants. Also, bacterial endophytes have distinctive reactions regarding the number and concentrations of isozymes in both infected and uninfected plants. It could be recommended the commercial usage of a mixture of targeted bacterial endophyte strains as therapeutic nutrients against Rhizoctonia root-rot disease as well as plant growth inducer.

Abbas, M.M., Ismael, W.H., Mahfouz, A.Y. et al. Efficacy of endophytic bacteria as promising inducers for enhancing the immune responses in tomato plants and managing Rhizoctonia root-rot disease. Sci Rep 14, 1331 (2024).

Click here to read the complete paper

Publication date: Wed 17 Jan 2024


Targeted pest control with RNA spray


Targeted pest control with RNA spray

by Désirée Schulz, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

Green peach aphids carry various yellowing viruses that lead to high losses in sugar beet yields. Credit: Leonie Graser/Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

Protecting plants efficiently against pests without harming other organisms—this is the objective of the joint research project ViVe_Beet, which is coordinated by the Julius Kühn Institute (JKI). Scientists from the JKI Institute for Plant Protection in Field Crops and Grassland, the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Sugar Beet Research (IfZ) are involved in the project.

The strategy adopted by the project partners involves the use of customized double-stranded RNA molecules, incorporated into a suitable formulation. This formulation is then applied through conventional application methods to protect sugar beets from yellowing viruses in the future.

Application of synthetic chemical insecticides and pesticides in agriculture has a negative impact on insect diversity and bee health. To avoid such harm, the EU phased out approval of systemically effective neonicotinoids in 2019. However, this has led to new issues in agriculture, particularly because green peach aphids (Myzus persicae), among the insects displaying high resistance to synthetic chemical insecticides, have proven exceptionally challenging to manage.

These aphids transmit several yellowing viruses—affecting sugar beets in particular—leading to enormous losses in sugar beet harvests. “We’re actually speaking of a 20% to 50% loss in yield due to the viruses alone,” says Maurice Pierry who has been supporting the ViVe_Beet project at the Fraunhofer IME Bioresources branch in Gießen from the start.

New approach to pest control: RNA interference (RNAi)

The scale of the issue means that new approaches are urgently required to ensure sustainable and efficient control of the aphids. Fraunhofer IME and its project partners JKI and IfZ have chosen a biological, species-specific approach and are working together to control these aphids with the help of RNA interference (RNAi).

Targeted pest control with RNA spray
During the RNA interference (RNAi) process, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is cut into small interfering RNA (siRNA) by the Dicer enzyme. The siRNA is incorporated into the RISC enzyme complex serving as the template for matching sequences which are then degraded by RISC. Credit: Maurice Pierry/Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

RNAi is a natural immune response of the hosts to the foreign genetic material of viruses, which is often present in the form of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Pierry explains, “Viruses have genetic material in the form of RNA. When RNA enters the cell of a living being (i.e., an insect in our case), an enzyme called ‘Dicer’ chops it into smaller segments known as small interfering RNA (siRNA).

“They are then incorporated into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) and used as a template to degrade matching mRNA sequences. If we select these dsRNAs so that they match a crucial gene of the insect, you can induce the organism to control itself effectively via its own RNAi system.”

From lab tests to the field

At the start of the project, which is scheduled from October 2021 to September 2024, potentially effective genes and their base sequences had to be identified. This was followed by biological methods to produce dsRNA specifically adapted to these base sequences. Pierry states, “To start with, we had to identify a gene that has an effect when silenced with the RNA interference mechanism. Effects vary from molting problems and a drop in offspring to increased mortality of the pests. After conducting a number of tests, we managed to identify several genes that cause high mortality in the aphids when silenced. This was the first major milestone.”

In a second step, the Fraunhofer IME scientists had to create a formulation that would protect the double-stranded RNA molecule from environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, UV rays and RNA-degrading enzymes until it reaches its destination, e.g., in the aphids’ intestines, where it is absorbed by the cell. “We have also been successful in this area. This means that our dsRNA is protected by a formulation that boosts the effect and has prolonged longevity,” says Pierry.

In the meantime, the researchers have embarked on the third step: The first spray trials directly on the target plant. “We have developed an RNA spray method and tested it in greenhouse spray trials. So far, we have achieved a mortality rate of 70% and a reduction in population size. These are great results,” says Pierry.

The final step will involve field trials including all previously excluded environmental factors. These will be carried out by JKI and the IfZ next summer.

Selective plant protection agents are harmless to other organisms

The innovative approach of the ViVe_Beet project can potentially lead to the development of new, environmentally friendly, selective plant protection agents, as the specific and natural molecules can be used not only to control insects but also viruses or fungi.

“This method is special as the specifically adapted dsRNA affects the target organism, in this case, the green peach aphids, but no other organisms such as humans or beneficial insects like bees,” says Pierry.

This new method of pest control raises hope for sustainable plant protection and has a high potential for future applications.

Provided by Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft 

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